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Before submitting Project 1, review the Artifact Chart Checklist Word Document to ensure you have met all the requirements for Project 1. When you feel that you have met all of the requirements successfully, submit your project.
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Please use the module 4.2 paper for project 1 . make this project robust and be very detail using all the information below and above.
ntroduction to Enlightenment and Romanticism
The Renaissance was followed in the 1600s by the Baroque and Rococo, two eras known for their love of opulence, detail, ornamentation, and idealized beauty. The Baroque was characterized by grandeur, stateliness, and magnificence, frequently dedicated to Biblical or mythological stories on a grand scale. In contrast, the Rococo was light, airy, and intimate, often depicting young ladies and gentlemen flirting or playing on a swing.
But scientific discoveries were changing our understanding of the world. People began to crave verifiable knowledge, not just the stories of mythology or tales of youthful indiscretions. The world was a dangerous place, fraught with war and violence. Science, hand in hand with philosophy and political realism, showed the way to understand and express ourselves in a new, more rational manner. Many leaders began to believe in the absolute power of human reason.
Galileo (astronomy), Newton (math and science), Descartes (philosophy), and other thinkers who followed the path of reason opened doors leading to a new Age of Enlightenment. It was this climate in the 1700s that led to both the American and French revolutions and to the emergence of thinkers such as Rousseau, Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and Benjamin Franklin.
While knowledge and reason are preferable to ignorance and superstition, men and women discovered during the final years of the eighteenth century that they were no guarantee of morality, truth, or even simple kindness. During the Reign of Terror at the end of the French Revolution, thousands of people were executed in bizarre, circus-like surroundings. The novelist Charles Dickens depicts this era memorably in his book A Tale of Two Cities. Artists such as David, who at first hailed the Revolution, ended up depicting it in images of bloodshed and despair. Even the great composer Beethoven included a sobbing funeral march in his Heroic Symphony to memorialize a hero who no longer existed.
Some Romantics directed their passionate feelings toward ideals of independence, justice, and the celebration of the natural world. Many Romantics celebrated the idea of universal brotherhood, that all people were like brothers and sisters. Other Romantics, perhaps jaded by the horrors of war and the limits of revolution, took a darker view of life. Gloomy images of tombstones, such as those painted by the German artist Friedrich, captured the European imagination.
At the end of the 1700s and in the early years of the 1800s, people of culture also looked to nature for solace. The poet Wordsworth praised the humble daffodil in his poem “I wandered lonely as a cloud,” while Delacroix painted exciting scenes of wild animals in exotic locations. The spirit of Romanticism was at the same time languid (such as a ghost sitting on a tombstone in the moonlight) and hysterical (wild nights of drinking and taking drugs while wearing colorful kaftans and turbans from the East). In part inspired by a novel The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe, suicide became a fad. The fashionable young were driven to end their lives in sorrow or debauchery, until the world once again came to its senses, in an Age of Transition toward a more holistic view of the universe and the creative role of humans within it.
Realism and Impressionism
Realism, Impressionism, and post-Impressionism are cultural eras that took place largely in Europe, Great Britain, and the United States. In the mid-nineteenth century, social attitudes were changing. Self-indulgence and exoticism were replaced by reverence for everyday life and images such as a seat by the fire with a loving family, including children and pets. This cozy scene was even reflected in the snug apartment of Sherlock Holmes at 221B Baker Street, the imaginary creation of a British doctor, Arthur Conan Doyle.
During this period of transition, the simple pleasures of life were celebrated. In the United States, the New England author Henry David Thoreau built a cabin with his own hands and lived there for two years, eventually writing the bestseller Walden. As the century drew on, reform was in the air. Thoreau, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and other writers fearlessly opposed slavery in the United States, while in Great Britain, the author Charles Dickens decried child labor and the lot of the poor.
Artists began selecting simple subjects for their art, rather than emotional battle scenes or dreamy landscapes filled with desolation. Realism was a widespread movement in Europe and the United States in which the common things of daily life were considered worthy of consideration on their own terms. For example, a pot of milk and a cow would be considered worthy objects for a painting. In the United States, Winslow Homer painted pictures of fishermen at sea. In France, Gustave Courbet painted poor workers in a stone quarry or on the farm, often using dull earth tones to emphasize the actual appearance of the land.
From Realism, it was a small step to Impressionism. While Realism attempted to portray objects and activities as seen by the human eye in almost a clinical, scientific manner, Impressionism attempted to capture life’s fleeting impressions, with feelings, images, and sensations, rather than the harsh lines of Realism. Impressionism also influenced music and literature. The Impressionist composer Debussy wrote haunting music that seemed to drift around notions of tonality, such as the song “Clair de Lune” (moonlight). The American composer Amy Beach wove late-Romantic and Impressionist tone clusters into her many works, especially notable in songs about birds and flowers.
Authors such as the novelists Émile Zola (French) and Virginia Woolf (British) began to break the rules that had governed fiction writing for centuries, abandoning strict chronology and moving seamlessly in and out of time. Once the great artists, writers, composers, and other thinkers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began to demolish the old ways of creating, there was no turning back. It was just a matter of time before great originals like Picasso in art, Stravinsky in music, and Joyce in fiction were to build a new modern consciousness out of the ashes of polite Victorian society.
Modern World
We left the great artists, writers, and thinkers of the nineteenth century as they were beginning to challenge the forms and conventions of their art. Instead of producing neatly painted scenes depicting the world in scientific detail, visual artists began to paint with greater energy and abandon, sometimes slapping paint on a canvas to emulate the effects of light, or drawing exaggerated cartoons to create social criticism.
The very forms that great art depended on were being broken down. In the early twentieth century, this approach to art exploded into a revolution in which creators smashed the old forms and embraced everything that was new. The artist Pablo Picasso pushed the limits of visual art as far as he could before developing cubism, a way of breaking down images into visual building blocks. At the same time, the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky set off riots with the performances of his music to The Rite of Spring, a score that incorporated primeval rhythms and dissonant chords, expressed in a suggestive ballet that shocked Edwardian sensibilities. The novels of Joyce, Kafka, and Woolf explored new approaches to painting word pictures, such as setting an entire novel in one day or imagining a world where men turned into insects or were jailed without knowing why. It was no coincidence that these changes occurred around the time that Sigmund Freud published his theories about the conscious and subconscious mind. Just before, during, and after World War I (1916–18), the modern world was born.
Throughout the twentieth century and into our own time, creative thinkers and artists have continued to explore and challenge with ever-changing works that address the major concerns of the human race and individuals. New cultural media have developed, including the motion picture, invented by Thomas Alva Edison and today considered by many to be the signature art form of our time. The Great Depression, Prohibition, women’s right to vote, civil rights in the United States, and World War II all not only paralleled changes in the arts and philosophy, but also in many ways were influenced by them. Picasso’s mural Guernica not only critiqued the whole notion of war but influenced future discussions of conflict by opinion makers and the voting public. The twentieth century was also a time of “isms” in the arts: not only cubism, but also fauvism (the art of wild colors), surrealism (think Dali’s melting timepieces), abstract expressionism, and even graffitism (Basquiat was one of the first graffiti artists to earn serious consideration).
The more extreme factions of the modern world since the birth of The Rite of Spring have been called the avant-garde, a French term meaning “advance guard.” Radicals such as conductor Pierre Boulez proclaimed, “Blow the opera houses up!” (Peyser, 2007, p. 292) and “All the art of the past should be destroyed!” (Peyser, 2007, p. 119) but not all avant-garde creators have been so focused on destruction. Andy Warhol, a visual artist from Pittsburgh, built an expanding art empire on the humble foundations of Campbell Soup cans and photos of celebrities.
The twentieth century also saw the emergence of new voices in Western culture, especially from those who had been marginalized. The ragtime music of Scott Joplin and other composers and the development of spirituals and gospel music paved the way for the Jazz Age, which reached its peak in the so-called Roaring Twenties. The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African American culture, giving rise to great artists, writers, and other creators whose voices had been repressed for too long. The syncopated beat of jazz led to the Beat Generation, celebrated by Greenwich Village poets such as Allen Ginsberg and writer Jack Kerouac, who also wove Zen Buddhist themes into their work. Women’s voices also were raised in song, art, writing, and philosophy. One of the most influential philosophers in the twentieth century was Susanne Langer, who wrote Philosophy in a New Key, which explored how people need to create symbols and to inject their world with meaning.
As the world entered the computer and digital age in the last third of the twentieth century, electronic technology became both the message and the medium. In fact, a popular thinker of the mid-twentieth century, Marshall McLuhan, coined the phrase “the medium is the message.” As the Beatles took the world by storm in the 1960s, artists created new forms of expression, such as “happenings,” cartoons as serious art (Lichtenstein), and music for prepared piano by John Cage. Advances in film resulted in wide screen and special effects, rejuvenating the science fiction genre in movies such as Star Wars. Black-and-white art-house fare by auteur directors such as Truffaut and Antonioni played down the street from Doris Day and Rock Hudson comedies. Later, Spike Lee reinvented the cinema from an African American sensibility.
As the twentieth century entered its final decades, the monumental art of the past, characterized by respectable figures on horseback in stone or bronze, had given way to the colorful plastic art of Claes Oldenburg, known for creating a giant Swiss Army knife sculpture, and Jeffrey Koons’s Balloon Dog, which looks like an oversized pink balloon toy. Music continued to evolve in creative ways. On the popular front, rock and roll, Motown, country, and folk yielded to rap, hip hop, industrial, and alternative sounds. On the classical stage, discord dominated in the works of the Polish composer Penderecki, while Philip Glass pioneered minimalism. Philosophically, Derrida’s deconstructionist ideas helped create a new interest in critical thinking, a tradition that found its roots in the discourses of Socrates more than 2,000 years earlier. Literature continued to enchant and inspire millions as best-sellers such as The Hunger Games and Harry Potter proved that popular fiction could be complex and literary as well as action-packed and exciting.
In the early years of the twenty-first century, these trends continued to give birth to new forms of expression throughout the world. Many digital artists today no longer use pen and paper at all; in fact, cursive writing—the artistic flow of penmanship cherished as a communication tool since the Middle Ages—may not be taught at all in the public schools of the near future. The arts and philosophy may have changed radically over the past 10,000 or more years, but one thing is certain: They are as important and conspicuous as ever and, if anything, have taken on new significance as tools for communication, celebration, and self or societal expression.
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