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ORDER INSTRUCTIONS Research Essay Nuts and Bolts: Length: 8 pages total (really

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Research Essay
Nuts and Bolts:
Length: 8 pages total (really 7 pages essay; 1 page should be a section for references). Do not include a cover letter.
• Part 1: Introduction (0.5 or ½ half page) • Part 2: Description and Explanation of Each Perspective/Domain (1.5 One and a half page)
• Part 3: Evaluation: Assess the Benefits of Each Perspective/Domain (1.5 One and a half page)
• Part 4: Evaluation: Assess the Costs (or Limits) of Each Perspective/Domain (1.5 One and a half page)
• Part 5: Describe Your Own/[Customer’s] Philosophy/System/Perspective on the Self and Happiness (1.5 One and a half page)
• Part 6: Conclusion (0.5 or ½ half page)
• References: One Page
• Total: 7 Pages Essay + One Page References = 8 Pages
References: 9 are required. Please use only Academic sources, Journal articles, Professional Academical Empirical Trust sources. Avoid Wikipedia, blogs, YouTube, or any other media that is not scholar/Academic/Empirical. (3 sources can be from class readings) These sources are Included at the end of these instructions Under Topic 1,2 and 3. You are to incorporate these references anywhere appropriate within your essay (wherever you see fit).
Review these instructions, Reading Sources, the reflection papers and seminars regarding the main three topics with the writer’s personal feedback included in these instructions carefully. The writer’s personal philosophy must be included in part 5 of the essay.
APA format should be used throughout the paper. No cover letter is needed.
Font: 12-point, Times New Roman; Spacing: Double (include page numbers); Margins: 1-inch
Do not use quotations (simply cite a source); Do not use footnotes. Paraphrase in your own words; do not use quotes or copy and paste from e-books, textbooks, Academic Journals, or any other source included or not included in these instructions.
Follow the structure of the essay, as is outlined below. Stick to the outline is very important.
Research Essay STRUCTURE/Outline
Part 1: Introduction (0.5 or ½ half page)
I recommend beginning with some kind of hook. Then, summarize what you are going to
discuss and describe the outline of your paper accurately to guide your reader through the essay appropriately.
Part 2: Description and Explanation of Each Perspective/Domain (1.5 One and a half page)
This essay will focus on the main topics- 1.- The malleability mindset,2.- The role of technology in our lives, and 3.- The role of income in happiness. (Stick to this sequence throughout the essay).
Describe and explain issues from each perspective/domain. Write as if you were discussing
these issues with an interested but uninformed reader. You will need to be concise: Write and devote at least 1 paragraph to each perspective/domain. Here, try to be as objective as possible. You are simply describing and explaining, not evaluating.
Part 3: Evaluation: Assess the Benefits of Each Perspective/Domain(1.5 One and a half page)
The perspectives/domains that we covered have generated controversy. Describe (what is in
your judgment) at least one beneficial or positive aspect of each of these perspectives/domains. Write and devote one short paragraph to each topic.
Part 4: Evaluation: Assess the Costs (or Limits) of Each Perspective/Domain (1.5 One and a half page)
While each perspective/domain may have (in some way) advantages, each domain also has its
limits or costs. Here, you are to offer critique and evaluate these limits or costs. Even if you are favorable to a particular perspective/domain, discuss at least one way in which each perspective/domain has some problematic aspect or aspects. Write and devote one short paragraph to each topic.
Part 5: Describe Your Own Philosophy/System/Perspective on the Self and Happiness (1.5 One and a half page)
Here you are to articulate your own/ [ CUSTOMER’s Perspective] on how life should be lived in terms of beliefs (this must include the malleability mindset, technology, and income). Consider how your approach may lead to fulfillment, meaning, and happiness. You can incorporate previous perspectives [Reflection Papers Seminars with Customer’s unique perspective], offer your own/ [Customer’s Perspective], or use a mixture. To be sure, there is no “right” answer to this question. However, do not simply assert your opinion. Evaluation of this section depends on the clarity of the reasons and explanations that you offer. Review the essays/reflection papers, and seminars/Questions included at the end of these instructions after the customer’s readings sources to write this part of the essay according to the customer’s philosophy and perspective of these topics/domains. Justify your rationale professionally/Academically.
Part 6: Conclusion (0.5 or ½ half page):
In one paragraph, sum up your paper effectively, concisely, and consistently. End this essay with your “bottom line” conclusion.
References (1 page): Here, include your references in APA format. (No DOIs)
you will research a total of 9 sources from, Journal articles, Professional Academical Empirical Trust sources only. Make sure to must include the Class Readings included below in these instructions.
Class Readings Sources you must include in each topic research and part of the essay.
Topic 1: The malleability mindset
Social Issues and Policy Review, Vol.5, No. 1,2011, pp 137-159
The Prospect of Plasticity: Malleability Views of Group Differences and their Implications for Intellectual Achievement, Mental/Behavioral Health, and Public Policy.
By Andrés G. Martínez and Rodolfo Mendoza -Denton
University of California Berkeley
Topic 2: The role of technology in our lives Harvard Business Review
“The Marshmallow Test for Grownups”
By Ed Batista
September 15, 2014
The Marshmallow Test for Grownups (
The New York Times
“Why We Can’t Look Away From Our Screens.”
By Claudia Dreifus
Topic 3: the role of income in happiness
The New York Times
Sunday Review OPINION
“Happiness Is Other People”
By RUTH WHIPPMAN October 27, 2017
• Opinion | Happiness Is Other People – The New York Times (
• High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being | PNAS
• pnas201011492 1..5
• High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being – PubMed (
“High income improves evaluation life but not emotional well-being.”
Author(s): Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
Vol. 107, No. 38 (September 21, 25010), pp 16489-16493
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
• Stable URL:
Accessed:30-10-2017 22:33 UTC
“High income improves evaluation life but not emotional well-being.”
Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton
Center for health well-being, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544
Contributed by Daniel Kahneman, August 4, 2010 (sent to review July 4, 2010)
Customer Reaction Paragraphs Questions and Seminars with Personal view/perspective regarding main Topics you must review to write[Part 5]of this essay successfully: Topic 1: The malleability mindset
The Prospect of Plasticity: Malleability Views of Group Differences and their Implications for Intellectual Achievement, Mental/Behavioral
Reflection Paper 1: The malleability mindset CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE
This lecture was fascinating and helpful to understand the potential causes of disparities,
discrimination, and other challenges that minorities face daily within the educational and mental
health care systems. From this reading, one can conclude that it would be extremely beneficial to
implement preventive practices and support programs to enhance the current academic curriculum and improve the access and nonjudgmental use of mental health services within our educational institutions. These measures can potentially contribute to the prevention, and appropriate treatment of mental illnesses, preferable at the earliest stages, focusing not only on medication and therapy but also on improving the individuals’ socio-economic environments. Also, promote the best practice to motivate children, especially those who are tagged as a low advantage and with learning disabilities, by including concepts like plasticity and malleability in daily activities. By using IQ tests and SATs to measure achievement rather than predict potential failure. This research is meaningful in the sense that it can provide hope to address learning issues and mental health in an inclusive multicultural non-stigmatized way to promote academic success and a better quality of life to those who belong to disenfranchised minorities and those who suffer from mental illnesses.
1.-How our current academic system can implement positive psychology and best practices to promote the concepts of Plasticity and Malleability to create a healthy balance between the preconceptions of immutable versus malleable to prevent stigma, discrimination, and detrimental consequences within the alumni?
2.-What would be the best way to persuade policymakers to create policies to enhance the
academic system to include mental health services and intervention programs at educational institutions to better support minorities who suffer from mental health disorders and learning difficulties due to the collateral effect of their socio-economic environment?
1.-Intelligence is often defined as analytical ability, as measured by the problem-solving tasks on an IQ test. Some researchers argue that intelligence is much more than this capacity. How do you define “intelligence?” Does your definition impact your academic motivation or performance? Please explain.
One can have many types of intelligence and combinations of these types. (e.g., Naturalistic,
Musical, Logical-Mathematical, Existential, Interpersonal, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Linguistic,
Intrapersonal, Spatial, and the most popular among hiring managers of many companies,
Emotional Intelligence). My intelligence perspective allowed me to be open-minded and be the
first of my family, who applied to attend college and a university despite having some disabilities. I graduated from college with the highest honors. (
2.- Have you ever experienced (or observed another person experience) the effect of stereotypes decreasing (or increasing) performance (in any area of life)? How (if at all) do the findings on stereotype threat/lift speak to this experience?
I grew up with the negative stereotype, “Women are bad at math [especially the first generation of immigrants from Italy].” This made my academic journey challenging; it was difficult for me
to be successful in math. After shifting my perspective and understanding that despite my gender
and origins, I could be successful in everything, I set my mind to including math. I became a
financial coach/credit counselor; I prepare tax returns, ITIN’s Individual Tax Identification
Numbers as an enrollment agent, and CAA Certified Acceptance Agent as part of my daily work
duties. I currently oversee the financial stability services department of my workplace.
3.- Would promoting dual attributions improve the lives of people with mental health conditions? Or might embracing dual attributions backfire? (Perhaps there would be no effect.) Please explain your reasoning.
Dual attributions could benefit the broken system we currently have by destigmatizing the use of
mental health services and the negative perception people have regarding mental health issues.
Thus, people who suffer from such challenges can access prevention programs and early treatment that addresses the biological and socio-economic causes, especially within our school system. In the beginning, it would be hard to get rid of the current stigma. Eventually, our society will embrace these practices as standard practices similar to others like nutrition, medical, and dental prevention programs at school that address the physical issues and potential environmental causes.
Reflection Paper 2: The role of technology in our lives CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE
“The Marshmallow Test for Grownups,” “Why We Can’t Look Away From Our Screens,” and “The Child, the Tablet and the Developing Mind, “Technology Readings
During challenging times, such as the recent wildfires, one can be grateful for technology to keep
our society safe and accurately informed with lifesaving resources. However, after reading the
articles “The Marshmallow Test for Grownups,” “Why We Can’t Look Away From Our Screens,” and “The Child, the Tablet and the Developing Mind,” One can question the pros and cons of having so much technology available, especially among children and adolescents. There are so many adverse consequences, such as the risk of developing an addiction to spending so much time in front of screens (e.g., Cellphones, TV, laptops, Tablets). It was concerning finding out the similarity of screen time’s effects with drug use in a human being’s brain, mostly in children and adolescents whose brains are under development. The harmful psychological and behavioral consequences that sometimes lead to lethal outcomes make one reevaluate when the appropriate age is to start using technology and the reasonable amount of time-usage to prevent the above adverse effects. The question is, what can we do as a society to protect our children from such dangers without depriving them of the advantages of having technology as a tool to be personally and academically successful. This article was an eye-opener. One can conclude from the reading that technology is a double-edged sword tool that can serve to the betterment or detriment of our society, primarily our children and adolescents who are the future of this country. As responsible adults, one must be a role model regarding safe practices concerning technology usage for children and adolescents around us.
1.-How can one develop safe, healthy best practices to use technology safely and promote these practices among children and adolescents? 2.-How can one counteract the adverse side effects of overusing technology? How many of these could effects be reversible?
1.-Without abandoning social media entirely, do you think deliberately taking breaks from social media would improve your subjective well-being/happiness? Why or why not? If you think such breaks would indeed increase your well-being, why might this be so (what is the underlying process)?
I do not use media like Facebook other than to post and share available resources for my clients to review on my organization’s website and Facebook page once a week. I am usually so busy working full time, studying full time, helping my daughter during her distance learning classes, and taking care of my senior convalescent mother. However, if this were my case, I would love to take extended breaks from the media because I would experience more human interaction. Since we must take asynchronous online classes instead of in-person classes, I have been experiencing mild depression and screen fatigue due to the lack of social interaction. I am sick and tired of only seeing a screen and not seeing the human behind the screen during the entire semester (e.g., a video, visual, prerecorded lessons, an introduction among students at the beginning of the semester); instead, I just have a plain screen with instructions to follow to interact with daily.
2.-To what extent is this perspective true? Also, to what extent do technology companies shoulder the burden of deliberately designing engaging/addictive products?
Indeed, it is convenient to have a device to complete some errands while waiting in line or traveling on the bus to use time wisely. However, by doing this, one could miss the social interaction that helps one meet new people, strengthen and expand one’s support networks. Technology companies target their products to make people addicted to their products’ convenience to the point of being overdependent on technology. Perhaps that is why the “titans” of the technology industry do not allow their children to use the devices they sell to people daily. Not many people know how to use a normal map instead of a GPS or do research not using google. If the cashier’s software is not working, the majority cannot do a simple mathematical operation. Is this the era of smart devices and less intelligent people? 3.-Why do you think this difference seems to be emerging? What do you think the long-term consequences (for individuals and society) might be?
The difference in parenting rules regarding the use of technology may emerge because the higher the education level, the higher the exposure to topics like harmful consequences produced by the overuse of technology in children. Whereas the lower the education level, the less exposure to such issues. One of the long-term effects could be the gradual loss of social skills, cognitive capacity, and problem-solving skills in children. The excessive use of technology could prevent children from socializing with other people and diminish their opportunities to learn the above skills due to the overdependence on devices to obtain information or immediate benefits with less mental and physical effort. Since evolution is sometimes based on the rule of “you, use it, or you lose it,” children may lose these capacities for the lack of neuronal interaction while spending extended time in front of screens (TV, Cellphone, I, Pad).
Reflection Paper 3 Part 1: The role of income in happiness CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE
The article “Happiness Is Other People” and “A snapshot of the age distribution of psychological
wellbeing in the United States” are interesting readings that help one to reflect on the real sense
and meaning of happiness and the validity of the many theories, definitions, and research regarding how, where, when, and what are the best techniques to achieve happiness and get fulfilled and satisfied in life. I found the questioning regarding the correlation of affluence and assets with joy and wellbeing. Indeed, one can conclude that the effect may vary according to one’s age, values, beliefs, personality, cultural background, physical and mental state. Also, happiness could be very complicated because what makes us happy today may not make us happy tomorrow.
Human beings are unpredictable, always change, and evolve according to certain circumstances;
what is true today may not be true tomorrow. Also, the definition of happiness and what is needed to obtain happiness could be different among individuals. Search for joy internally may
work for some individuals, whereas hunting happiness outside within one’s community and
interacting with people may work for other individuals; there is no one-recipe-fits-all. Another
absolute fact is that money is necessary to survive and thrive in life. However, most things,
experiences, people, moments, and memories that make one happy cannot be necessarily acquired with money; most of them are free (e.g., sunset, nature, love, long-lasting friendships). Lastly, it was interesting to learn that beyond a certain income threshold (e.g., $75,000), any increments on income may not be as relevant in one’s emotions or wellbeing in certain circumstances. Thus, one may not need an excessive income to be happy, but one must learn how to enjoy life and everything that one has in the present moment—reaching a balance between inner happiness and external happiness. Perhaps happiness is a decision and a set of skills that one can utilize to enjoy life, other people’s company, nature, solitude, and be content no matter the socio-economic situation. We may even avoid sickness caused by stress just by being happy and live and enjoying life fully and avoid extreme consumerism.
1.-Can one achieve fulfillment and happiness despite how one pursues happiness either within or outside with other people? Yes or No? Why?
2.-How can an individual with an average income of $75,000 or higher avoid a reduction in
savoring small pleasures when obtaining small income increments?
Reflection Paper 3 Part 2: Happiness CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE
According to Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton’s “High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being” study, happiness is divided into two categories, Emotional Well-being, which defines one’s levels of happiness in the present moment, and Life Evaluation, which represent the level of happiness throughout one’s life span. Happiness is a broad concept that is perceived differently according to one’s culture, age, generation, values, personal views, and opinions. I would love to see a similar study using a diverse, multicultural sample from other countries with different cultures other than average American individuals. After all, the United States of America U.S.A is becoming a melting pot of many cultures and people from different countries. Thus, it would be interesting to distinguish the variation of happiness definitions and measures across other cultures.
During my childhood and adolescence, my life was based on pursuing the means to reach a high-quality Life Evaluation since my family’s economy was minimal. However, those years were the happiest years of my life; despite the lack of financial resources, we enjoyed good health, and my family was united. We lived in a cohesive friendly, loving community where we continuously help each other. Thus, I never felt unhappy, discriminated against, rejected, or lonely at all. After immigrating to the United States of America, my goal was to continue pursuing happiness, the so-called “American Dream,” focusing on everything that helped me achieve a decent quality of life Evaluation for my family and me. Unfortunately, the stressful, fast-paced American way of living led me to neglect some essential emotional well-being factors. I was working and attending school, aiming for a better future for my family and me.
However, I forgot to create space for special moments, happy memories, exciting experiences, and I fully enjoy life and family as I use to in my country of origin. After being assaulted by a mentally challenged man and spending over two years in recovery, I started valuing emotional well-being more than the efforts and means to increment my income to achieve a high life evaluation. I spent more time with family and procured to create space and the necessary means to have happy quality time and experiences with my family. I put more effort into creating happy memories than accumulate assets. Mainly now during the COVID-19 Pandemic/quarantine. I appreciate having my healthy family, housing, the necessary stuff to survive, having decent employment where I do what I love the most, and helping others thrive by connecting them to available resources. If I learned something from this pandemic experience, it’s how important human interaction is for my well-being and happiness. Indeed, Ruth Whippman stated in her article “Happiness Is Other People,” “our happiness depends on other people.”
My goal is to continue pursuing happiness, focusing mainly on obtaining Emotional Well-being. I firmly believe that if I study what I love, and it’s meaningful for me, and if I work passionately doing what I love, happiness will be the final product. Therefore, if I am happy, I will be less stressed, healthier, and have more creativity, productivity, and other skills and values that will bring prosperity to my life and others’ lives around me. Which indirectly will provide a high-quality life evaluation as a collateral product of the above factors.
Regarding society, it would be a great idea to promote the pursuit of Emotional well-being, mainly after surviving this global pandemic. If not all society members, most of society will be traumatized in different degrees dealing with the socio-economic, political, ongoing collateral side effects and the physical and emotional scars of this pandemic for generations to come. Perhaps it is a wise idea to promote the pursuit of Emotional Well-being to minimize the adverse effects of such adversities and promote positive best practices to achieve much-needed happiness.
1. Influential cultural critics (and historians) have written about modern society’s preoccupation (if not obsession) with youth. However, research demonstrates that happiness (in general) increases as people grow older. Please offer plausible speculation for why this pattern consistently emerges.
The process of aging most of the time in an average individual is accompanied by increased
wisdom, life experience, and a set of skills that help one self-regulate maintain a consistent self-
esteem and value the present moment in life and prioritize the things that matter the most. Thus,
older adults usually focus on enjoying life, family, friends, and themselves and stop worrying about others’ opinions, acceptance, and judgments. Usually, when one realizes that we have only one opportunity to enjoy the beauty of life, that life is not eternal, and we may cease existing on earth at any minute is when one experiences an awakening; that impulses one to change perspectives and experience fewer negative emotions and more happiness, enabling one to deeply enjoying every little detail of daily life (e.g., sunset, birds, flowers, good food, great moments, music). Perhaps this trend or pattern is not exclusive to the elderly, but also young adults who experience a near- death experience or a peak experience that makes them awake and change their attitudes towards daily life can have this increase in happiness before their fifties.
2. A basic finding about the relation between (household) income and happiness is that more money means more happiness (that is, emotional well-being), but only up to a certain point/threshold. After that threshold is reached, more money ceases to bring more happiness. Please provide an explanation (and reflection) about why this finding has emerged.
A decent income undoubtedly is great to thrive and enhance the quality of one’s life. However, it
is not the only predictor of happiness. According to Kahneman and Deaton’s study, after an average of $75,000 annual income, small income increases do not increase happiness with the same intensity; also, one has the risk of losing the capacity to enjoy small pleasures. Perhaps it has to do with the personal relationship one has with money and the primary purpose of money in one’s life. Some people put negative connotations to money or people with high incomes. For example, if an an individual put a personal meaning or purpose in part of the capital probably the increments can provide happiness not for the fact of increasing wealth but for the great benefits this capital will bring to the purpose (e.g., charity, cancer centers, nonprofits, scholarships for low-income students). Also, if one’s concept of money is positive and perceived affluence as a tool to succeed and help others succeed, which can influence one’s emotional status regarding a capital increase.
3. A consistent finding that pervades the happiness literature is that social connection is perhaps the most crucial determinant of happiness. However, we also know that people have a strong need for self-care. Given life’s competing demands, which—social relations or self-care—should be prioritized? (Indeed, we sometimes must make such a choice.) Please explain your reasoning.
According to one’s individual needs, a healthy balance of social relationships and solitude sessions, and self-care could be the most beneficial approach. As social creatures, we must experience social interaction. One good example of the detriment that lack of social interaction can cause in one’s mental and physical health is the quarantine that most of us have been enduring since March due to the COVID-19. However, one also needs to practice self-care and spend some time alone to recharge energies, decompress, connect with the inner self, inner happiness, inner peace, and all the excellent emotional and spiritual parts of our mind, body, and soul. This type of deep connection with oneself is difficult to achieve with others or during social events.

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