PY 100 – Critical Thinking In PART III remember that you are putting 2 things on
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PY 100 – Critical Thinking
In PART III remember that you are putting 2 things on each line – the sentence itself AND whether it is a Proposition or Conclusion.
PART I – Read the following sentences and determine if it is an argument or not. Remember that an argument must have at least one proposition and one conclusion and have a logical connection to show how the proposition leads to the conclusion.
The snow is making driving conditions very dangerous. But I must still go out and vote even though my candidate has no chance of winning.
Herbert had the highest score on the qualifying exam, and so he will get first consideration for the job. The person who gets first consideration almost always gets the job. Thus, it is pretty sure that the job will go to Herbert.
It looks like a duck! It sounds like a duck! It even walks like a duck! It must be a duck.
“The more complicated forms assumed by civilizations, the more restricted the freedom of the individual must become.”
Charlene Brown, executive chef at the Moulin Restaurant, offers one of the most exciting new menus in town. Her poached salmon with red pepper coulis is particularly inspired, and her attention to detail in her presentation in unparalleled.
Duchamp’s Urinal is considered an important work of modern art. The thing is nothing you can’t find in any men’s room. Modern art is garbage.
An Oregon man said his wife had the right to commit suicide: “It’s not a matter of how long you live but the quality of life you live, and it was her right and her decision and she chose. She could not do the things she loved anymore.”
As much as I hate to be on the side of the liberals, we definitely should not have a constitutional amendment banning flag burning. Such an amendment would be the first ever to affect a freedom guaranteed by the First Amendment. Besides, flag burners may think they are showing disrespect by burning the flag of their country, but by being allowed to do so, they prove to the world that this country practices the freedom it preaches.
Recently, cultural anthropologists have disagreed over whether cannibalism was ever widespread and whether it exists at all today. “Cannibals are largely creatures of our own surmise,” says one. “Ritual or habitual cannibalism is rare or nonexistent: There is no reliable, first-hand witnesses of the practice, and almost all reports are based on hearsay.” – Skeptical Inquirer (January/February 1988)
No matter what fast drivers think, higher speed limits will result in more needless deaths on the highway. So speed limits should not be raised.
PART II – In each of the following arguments each proposition is numbered. On you answer sheet indicate if each statement is a PREMISE and CONCLUSION. Remember that a sentence could be both a conclusion for one argument and a premise for another. Are the premises Dependent or Independent?
(1) Without tax increases there will soon be runaway inflation. (2) But Congress refuses to raise taxes. (3) Thus, before long there will be runaway inflation. (4) That means that you should borrow all the money you can right now.
(1) People who study history are wiser than those who do not. (2) Studying history makes a person less likely to repeat the mistakes of the past, and not repeating past mistakes is a sign of wisdom. (3) And because the primary aim of education is producing wisdom, (4) all universities should require the study of history.
(1) Anything worth recording has been entered into the ship’s log, so (2) I can be sure I’ve never met a mermaid. (3) A mermaid would be worth recording, and (4) there’s nothing about meeting a mermaid in my ship’s log.
(1) Higher education should increase our ability to think critically and to appreciate a greater variety of experiences. (2) Thus, it is good to take courses in the humanities, science, and social science. (3) So, students who take the advanced-level course in twentieth-century American poetry have made a wise choice.
(1) It is obvious that the judge committed the murder, given that (2) either the butler or the judge did it. (3) Since the butler was passionately in love with the victim, it was not he who committed the murder.
(1) “For some years the suspicion has existed among more inspired geneticists that viruses were a form of naked genes. If so, (2) the best way to find out what a gene was and how it duplicated was to student the properties of viruses.”
(1) Since all Marxists are Communists, (2) all Communists are Marxists.
(1) The Lakers almost didn’t beat the Kings. (2) They’ll never get past Dallas.
(1) If the butler had done it, he could not have locked the door. (2) Therefore, since the door was locked, we know the butler is in the clear.
(1) That cat loves dogs. (2) Probably, she won’t be upset if you bring home a new dog for a pet.
(1) Hey, he can’t be older than his mother’s daughter’s brother. (2) His mother’s daughter has only one brother.
(1) Mr. Hoover will never make it into the state police. (2) They have a weight limit, (3) and he’s over it.
(1) Presbyterians are not fundamentalists, (2) but all born-again Christians are. (3) So, no born again Christians are Presbyterians.
(1) I guess Tom doesn’t have a thing to do. (2) While else would he waste his time watching daytime TV?
(1) Since the clunk comes only when I pedal, (2) the problem must be in the chain, the crank, or the pedals.
PART III For the following arguments identify the premises, the conclusion(s) and state whether the premises (if more than one) are INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT.
1. You have to be very quiet to see deer in the woods. Deer tend to run when they hear noise.
2. Consciousness cannot be explained by the laws of physics and chemistry, so it is not a physical phenomenon.
3. I’m sure now that Richard and Lisa are in love. They both have that dreamy look, and besides, I just saw them talking together.
4. You should not ask a friend to keep a secret from his or her spouse. Marriage is a more intimate relationship than friendship, and one should not ask someone to compromise a more intimate relationship for the sake of a less intimate one.
5. It is extremely dangerous to carry a can of gasoline in the trunk of your car. Gasoline is highly flammable, and it has tremendous explosive power. After all, when it is burned in your engine, a gallon of gas is capable of propelling two tons of metal for twenty miles or more.
6. We should not give into the demands of terrorists when they take hostages. That will only convince them that their tactic works and thus encourage them to use it again.
7. Without welfare, some poor people would have no means of support, so we must not eliminate welfare. The government has a duty to provide everyone with at least the essentials of life.
8. Welfare is a form of expropriation: it takes money out of one person’s pocket and puts it into someone else’s. Since the function of government is to protect individual rights, including property rights, it should not be running welfare.
9. People are allowed to vote when they are eighteen, and males have to register for the draft then. Since eighteen-year-olds are considered old enough to have these responsibilities, surely they are old enough to decide whether to have a drink. The drinking age should not be twenty-one.
10. The case against playing baseball on artificial turf is unassailable Fake turf makes the ball bounce unnaturally and intensifies high temperatures, often by as much as twenty or thirty degrees during summer day games. Players tend to injure their legs more often and more seriously on artificial turf. And it has contributed to the decay of many traditional baseball skills, such as bunting and the positioning of fielders.