I would like to give a detailed response about or your opinion and talk about th
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I would like to give a detailed response about or your opinion and talk about the article below in a manner that adds information and/or asks new and interesting questions. ——————————————————————————
The accident I chose was the 1992 crash of USAir Flight 405. As this aircraft, a Fokker 28-4000, was attempting to depart LaGuardia airport it stalled and impacted the ground to the side of the takeoff runway. This stall was the result of ice buildup on the wings which greatly reduced the capability of the wings to produce adequate lift. The main risk that day was the serious icing conditions present. Compounding this were several delays which led the crew of 405 to return for a second deicing. After this, they reasonably determined that icing was no longer a severe risk. Neither the official regulations nor the company procedures required the crew to more thoroughly examine the wing for ice buildup. However, the report did find that the airport’s deicing procedures were inadequate due to not using the optimal type of fluid. The type 1 fluid used only provided about 15 minutes of protection while takeoff delays were stretching beyond 30 minutes. The reason this other (type II) fluid was not used was the result of the airport manager waiting on guidance from the FAA regarding its possible effects on surface friction. Tests to determine the truth of this were ongoing and nearby airports were using the type II fluid without incident. Moreover, type II fluid is formulated for anti icing which would have been more appropriate for this situation, but it was not in common use at the time within the United States. The flight crew did consider going for a third deicing, but ultimately decided to press forward towards the takeoff.
This incident is interesting from a hazard and risk assessment standpoint since the icing threat was correctly identified as a threat to safety. From the crew’s perspective they performed their due diligence in looking at the wing with the ice light but did not see the clear ice that had built up. The airport manager had realized that type II fluid would be useful but had not reached a final decision on its use. USAir and the FAA both had guidelines and best practices but not any that fit this exact scenario. This crash is what kicked off an intensive study of icing conditions to ensure that the entire aviation system would not repeat this tragedy. With perfect hindsight, the correct action for the crew to make would have been to go back for that third deicing and inspect the wing from a better vantage point to check for ice. The airport manager should have been authorizing the use of that type II fluid to provide better protection. Finally, at the highest level of decision making, the FAA and the airline should have had rules and guidelines in place to encourage a more aggressive assessment of icing conditions.
National Transportation Safety Board. (1992). Aircraft Accident Report. https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/AAR9302.pdf