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2-3 paragraphs regarding assigned readings, I’ve provided here responses of 3 ot

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2-3 paragraphs regarding assigned readings, I’ve provided here responses of 3 other students with an overview of the chapters.
The sampling technique makes research easy for the researcher. It makes the study possible by studying a subset of the population. Any research sampling technique is considered useful as the sample is selected from a large group of the population to get an accurate and faster result. Sampling is of two types probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. Probability and no probability sampling both are further divided into different types. Probability sampling deals with randomly selected samples from the target population, while non-random methods select no probability samples. According to (Elfil & Negida, 2017) multistage sampling is also used in doing research work for nursing as it makes to deal with hospitals, nursing home sad individuals. Sampling should be done correctly to terminate severe validity concerns of research, especially in nursing research. It is essential to present valid information for health care measures and health care researches. Validity and reliability are fundamental in nursing. Reliability makes sure to determine the quality and validity of specific research or instrument used in health care measures. Test-retest reliability is majorly used as it lets the researcher know about the validity of the result repeatedly. Reliability in nursing research basically provides error-free information. Sampling data and results should be free of error with accuracy, so reliability is checked for further implementations and research criteria. Reliability is one of the essential qualities required at the time of decision making by the researcher. In the medical field, error-free research is acknowledged at all major and minor levels of research.
Chapter 8 talks about sampling. I learned that researchers usually cannot make direct observations of every individual in the population they are studying. Instead, they collect data from a subset of individuals – a sample – and use those observations to make inferences about the entire population. Ideally, the sample corresponds to the larger population on the characteristic(s) of interest. In that case, the researcher’s conclusions from the sample are probably applicable to the entire population. This type of correspondence between the sample and the larger population is most important when a researcher wants to know what proportion of the population has a certain characteristic – like a particular opinion or a demographic feature. Public opinion polls that try to describe the percentage of the population that plans to vote for a particular candidate, for example, require a sample that is highly representative of the population.
Chapter 9 is titled “Reliability” and it relates to just that, reliability in research. When we examine a construct in a study, we choose one of a number of possible ways to measure that construct. For example, we may choose to use questionnaire items, interview questions, and so forth. These questionnaire items or interview questions are part of the measurement procedure. This measurement procedure should provide an accurate representation of the construct it is measuring if it is to be considered valid. For example, if we want to measure the construct, intelligence, we need to have a measurement procedure that accurately measures a person’s intelligence. Since there are many ways of thinking about intelligence (e.g., IQ, emotional intelligence, etc.), this can make it difficult to come up with a measurement procedure that has strong validity.
Chapter 8 of the textbook relates to the concept of probability. This concept is fundamental to much of the decision making in sampling for a quantitative study as well as in analysis of study outcomes. In many of these studies, we want to be able to conclude that the result was due to a real difference, not to chance or to a bias that has been inadvertently introduced. Probability theory provides a basis for drawing one conclusion or the other (Tappen, 2016).
Chapter 9 explains reliability and It is often noted that the reliability of measures used in research is specific to the situation in which they are applied. This means that reliability should be established in every study in which a measure is employed. The choice of reliability test depends on the study and the measures being used. Reliability of the measures used in a quantitative study is a necessary component of the quality of measures. Validity is the second, equally essential component.
Tappen, R. M. (2016). Advanced nursing research: from theory to practice (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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