Respond in each different paragraphs to each different write up 1. The involun
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Respond in each different paragraphs to each different write up
1. The involuntary confinement of leprosy patients at Carville brought forth stigmatization because it ostracized a group of people whose only crime was that they were diagnosed with an illness. It was appalling to see that these individuals were not able to carefully consider whether they wanted to participate in isolation and treatment and, as a result, were deprived of their civil liberties. In the earlier days of Carville, people were treated like prisoners and had to give up their rights forcibly; the right to vote and access to a telephone. Their only communication was via email, but only after the staff members sterilized it until nothing left. It was honestly challenging to see that these patients were not treated with respect and with dignity from the beginning, but I’m relieved that the history of Carville didn’t end on a sour note. New drugs and experiments were continually being produced and tested on patients at Carville. Since they were patients there, physicians would assume that they would take it. Many patients were guinea pigs of the medical trials and treatments with chaulmoogra oil and other medications that were often extremely painful and ineffective. The patients could not give informed consent, and even if asked and said no, doctors would go forth with the operation, dissection, or experimentation anyway. This violated the respect for autonomy and non-maleficence. Some patients were desperate for medical treatment and didn’t think twice about the consequences. After a cure was discovered, Carville’s purpose gradually became necessary, and they no longer required patients to live there. However, residents often found no place to go and no identity outside of the leprosarium, and many chose to stay. Many of the patients living at Carville were institutionalized for most of their lives. They were either abandoned by their family and friends or had severed contact to avoid problems. I see it as a violation of justice. The healthcare system has developed a dependency on its patients, leaving them unprepared to resume reality outside of Carville. The government forces them into isolation and then, after decades of dependence, forces them to go back into the world without any assistance or allocation of resources that could somehow prepare them back to society. The existence of Hansen’s diseases alarmed officials and, with help from a dermatologist, passed a bill to create the Louisiana Leper Home and sequestered these patients from the outside world. This caused many people to be afraid of Hansen’s disease as they were afraid of getting contaminated or catching the disease. The issues back then are very similar to the problems we face today with COVID-19, where fear drives these institutions, and stigma runs like a disease. Like leprosy, COVID-19 provides an excuse to stigmatize already stigmatized groups further.
2.Based on basic bioethical principles and professional codes of ethics, discuss your thoughts on the involuntary confinement of leprosy patients at Carville.
Many of these people were held against their will solely for being infected with a disease that they had no control over preventing. Legally, there was and is no route that warrants this kind of treatment of Americans, regardless of their health status. Their right to vote was infringed upon along with their rights to raise their own children. Marriage among patients was discouraged because the hospital would have to find willing parents to take on the children so many opted against having their own children to avoid the heartache. Overall, I understand that people were fearful of the disease and so consequently went for the easiest method of separation to ensure people didn’t get it. But this separation ostracised the real victims of the situation who are the patients. Based on basic research ethics principles, discuss the development of a cure for Hansen’s Disease at Carville. Were patients able to give informed consent? Were they asked for informed consent?
According to the patients of the time, there was an experimental era where no known cure actually existed. Several patients participated in several failed attempts. Additionally, there were daily injections of an Chaulmoogra oil substance and later on painful Promin injections. There was no informed consent and patients most likely were uninformed on anything except the fact that it was believed these drugs would cure them. Today this would be seen as unethical because every patient has basic rights, including the right to know exactly what they are taking and what the possible repercussions would be as well as the right to refuse if they disapprove. Discuss the “eviction” of patients once they were cured. How would you analyze the ethical issues involved when the healthcare system creates dependency in patients and then “evicts” them?
There were many patients who were brought to the facility as children or had resided there for decades of their lives. Additionally, for many years the patients were actually barred from leaving the premises. An eviction from all they’ve known into an unfamiliar world where the only thing one could be sure of was stigmatization would understandably be disenchanting to the patrons of Carville. A better solution would have been slow integration back into society with the involvement of social workers and family members, under the assumption that the patient actually had any living or willing relatives to be rached. How does the community reaction to a potential leprosarium in the neighborhood compare to issues encountered today?
Generally, fear drives people when they are facing the unknown. At the time leprosy was considered one of the worst diseases on earth to get. These feelings were tied to how extensive many of the sufferers’ lesions were, completely covering their faces and extremities, making them highly visible. When faced with the idea of a potential leprosarium within their city limits many of Carville’s citizens disapproved. Some going as far as to say that if any of the “lepers” got out, they would inclined to shoot them. Today, we still face similar problems of stigmatization and fear-driven disdain for sufferers of a disease. For example, mental health issues in the U.S. is something that a lot of people would rather ignore, but the fact is that it affects more people than we would probably expect. Too often patients are thrown into the category of “crazy” or ‘psycho” and kept at the margins of society to alleviate peoples anxiety about something they actually do not know anything about. I believe that for both cases an educated population is key. People must know so that there is no room for fear.